Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences

Volume: 45 Issue: 1

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Historical and contemporary development of novel chemotype varieties with high essential oil of lemongrass in India: A review



CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow-226015

*Corresponding author; Email: [email protected]

Year: 2023, Page: 17-27, Doi:

Received: Jan. 12, 2023 Accepted: May 5, 2023 Published: Dec. 2, 2023


Lemongrasses found in India encompass Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. citratus, C. khasianus, and C. pendulus. This fragrant perennial grass belongs to the Poaceae family and is indigenous to India as well as other tropical and subtropical regions in Southeast Asia and Africa. Pinpointing its precise place of origin is challenging due to its extensive history of cultivation and utilization across various cultures. It is believed to have originated in the maritime Southeast Asian region, encompassing countries like India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Lemongrass thrives in these regions and has played a significant role in their culinary and medicinal traditions for many generations. Among these, Cymbopogon citratus, a tropical lemongrass variety, is native to multiple Asian regions, particularly Southeast Asia and South Asia. It is widely cultivated and employed in a range of global cuisines and traditional healing practices. Lemongrass finds extensive applications in the herbal, medicinal, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and fragrance industries. Lemongrass oil is known for its diverse biological properties, which encompass antibacterial, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects. Not too long ago, India ranked as one of the world' leading exporters of lemongrass essential oil. Several prominent lemongrass cultivars have emerged, including GRL-1 (geraniol-rich), Krishna, Cauveri, Pragati, Praman, T-1, CIM Shikhar, Chirharit, CKP-25, SD-68, CIMAP Suwarna, and Krishnapriya. Among these, CIMAP Suwarna, Krishna, and CIM Shikhar stand out as the most widely favoured varieties across India developed at the CSIR-CIMAP in Lucknow, India. Indian universities and research institutions have also played a pivotal role in the development of novel lemongrass cultivars. Examples include Jor Lab L-2, OD-19, SD-68 (C. flexuosus), RRL-16 (C. pendulus), and CKP-25. Notably, there's Jor Lab L-9, a distinctive strain of C. khasianus known for its high methyl eugenol content. Furthermore, the germplasm for Malabar lemongrass (C. khasianus) is notable for its abundant herbage and elevated elemicin content, reaching up to 70%. The CSIR-NEIST in Jorhat and the CSIR-CIMAP, Lucknow have contributed to the development of new high geraniol-rich lemongrass cultivars, such as "Jor Lab L-15" (C. khasianus), GRL-1, and CIM Atal (C. flexuosus), respectively. b: citral, elemicin, geraniol, methyl eugenol content, vitamin A, Cymbopogon, flexuosus, Cymbopogon pendulus, Cymbopogon khasianus, Cymbopogon citratus, Lemongrass varieties

Keywords: Citral, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon khasianus, Cymbopogon pendulus, Elemicin, Geraniol, Lemongrass varieties, Methyl eugenol content, Vitamin A


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Cite this article

Kumar A, Lal RK, Gupta AK, Chanotiya CS.2023. Historical and contemporary development of novel chemotype varieties with high essential oil of lemongrass in India: A review. J Med Aromat Plant Sci 45: 17-27